Signal Processing for the Earth Sciences
CERI 7106-8106
Fall 2023
MWF 9:10-10:05 EQ1 110 (3876 Central Classroom, aka house 3)

Instructor: Mitch Withers,, x4940, 3904 Central room202A (the southeast corner of the building). Office Hours: As needed, please email.

Description: Fundamentals of digital processing of geophysical data, both purely mathematical and applied aspects with attention to digital seismograms and potential field data. This class will introduce concepts on linear systems in the time and frequency domains and the relationships between and manipulation within these domains. We will shed light on "black boxes" so that the limitations and advantages of signal processing tools are appreciated and so that they can be used properly and conclusions drawn appropriately. The course assumes a working knowledge of integral transforms and MATLAB.

TextBook: The class will depend primarily on notes and background material provided by Rick Aster at Colorado State, Aster and Borchers, Time Series Analysis Additional notes on various topics may also be taken from other sources including but not limited to "The Fast Fourier Transform and its Applications" by E. Oran Brigham, Prentice Hall 1988, "The Fourier Transform and Its Applications" by Ronald N. Bracewell, McGraw Hill 1986, and "Of Poles and Zeros: Fundamentals of Digital Seismology (Modern Approaches in Geophysics)" by Frank Scherbaum, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.

Archive of class notes from Aster and Borchers at NMT cir. 2013 (includes helpful matlab examples). GEOP 505

Evaluation: determined by 70% homework, 25% final project, and 5% punctuality and participation.** Students are strongly encouraged to work together and consult resources outside the class. But your work must still be your own. Homework is due at the beginning of class on the due date specified in this syllabus.No credit will be granted for late homework. Only written protests of homeworks scores will be considered.

** If you are ill or have symptoms of a communicable disease please do not come to class and email me as soon as you are able. If you are unable to attend class for any reason, please email me.

Final Project: There is no final exam for this class. Instead, all students are expected to produce a final project. The project will focus on the signal processing aspects of a scientific problem chosen by the students. Abstracts describing the project are due in November as specified by the schedule distributed on the first day of class. A 5-10 page written final project report is required of M.S. students and a 10-15 page written final project report is required for Ph.D. students. Additionally, Ph.D. students will give a brief 15 minute oral presentation on their project during the final week of class.

Students are strongly encouraged to work together and consult resources outside the class. But your work must still be your own. Plagiarism will be severely penalized. Be certain to reference where appropriate in your final report.

Please do not be intimidated by the notes. We'll be learning this together. The schedule is a goal that is worthy of meeting but it can be modified. It is far more important to understand.

Note 1. Lectures marked with (M) use matlab in class.
Note 2. Slides are white text with a dark background for display pruposes. If you wish to print slides and save ink, choose B&W from the print dialog to print with a white background and black text.

08/28 Welcome and review of complex arithmetic
08/30 Linear Systems in the time domain
09/01 Linear Systems in the time domain; HW 1 distributed

09/04 Holiday, No Class
09/06 Linear Systems in the time domain
09/08 Linear Systems in the frequency domain (M)

09/11 Linear Systems in the frequency domain
09/13 Linear Systems in the frequency domain
09/15 Linear Systems in the frequency domain

09/18 Linear Systems in the frequency domain
09/20 Linear Systems in the frequency domain
09/22 Pole Zero Potpourri; HW 1 due; HW 2 distributed (requires xtruedisp.ascii)

09/25 Power Spectra (M)
09/27 Power Spectra
09/29 Sampled Time Series (M)

10/02 Sampled Time Series
10/04 Sampled Time Series
10/06 Sampled Time Series

10/09 Sampled Time Series
10/11 Sampled Time Series; HW2 due; HW 3 distributed (requires mysteryseries.ascii)
10/13 Sampled Time Series

10/16 Fall Break, no class
10/18 no class;
10/20 Deconvolution (M); New due date for HW2

10/23 Deconvolution (M)
10/25 FIR Filters (M)
10/27 FIR Filters

10/30 FIR Filters (M)
11/01 Laplace Transform
11/03 Laplace Transform; HW 3 due; HW 4 distributed

11/06 Laplace Transform (M)
11/08 Z-Transform
11/10 Z-Transform

11/13 IIR Filters
11/15 IIR Filters
11/17 IIR Filters (Abstracts Due) (M)

11/20 Image Processing (M)
11/22 Thanksgiving Holiday, No Class
11/24 Thanksgiving Holiday, No Class

11/27 Hankel Transform
11/29 FK filters; HW 4 due
12/01 Hilbert Transform

12/04 Gravitational Waves
12/06 Student Presentations
12/08 Final Exam 10:30-12:30: Final Projects written reports due at 10:30AM CST

Directory of matlab scripts used in class

Titles of previous final projects.

Fall 2022

Evaluating the Power Spectral Densities of Seismic Data in Oklahoma from Nov 2011 until Dec 2011 Recorded by TA Arrays. Sonia Bazargan
Power Spectral Density (PSD) of Unevenly Sampled DAta Using Lomb-Scargle Periodogram. Hadi Heydarizadeh Shali
Noise-cancelling from Sound Waves and a Review on the Signal Processing of Noise-cancelling Headphones. Md Sahidul Islam
Image Processing Technique in Everyday Life. Ipsita Mitra
Signal Processing: A Gravity Data Enhancement Toolf for Mapping Geologic Structures in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. Ayomiposi Falade

Fall 2021
Picture Resolution Enhancement by Particle Swarm Optimization Method. Zohreh Abbasi
Theory of data analyses from seismic instrumentation on the I-40 bridge to determine when the crack on the bridge occurred. Ab Abdulhadi
Evolution of 2018 Kilauea Eruption Observed with Spectrograms. Ivan Flores
Assesement of Dynamic Triggering in New Madrid and East Tennessee Seismic Zone Using Waveform Data. Alamgir Hosain
Heat Equation and Fourier Series. Khadija Nadimi
Determining the Kappa Co-efficient Using Seismigram Recordings of the New Madrid Seismic Network for a Local Earthquake Nearby the Mississippi Embayment. Sadia Rinty
Signal Processing Techniques in Reciever Function Analysis. Chameera Silva
Short Time Fourier Transform and Continuous Wavelet Transform of Laboratory Earthquake Signals. Navin Thapa

Fall 2020
A Review on Pile Bearing Capacity Using Wave Equation Analysis. Austin Feathers
Implementation of Signal Processing to Study Pulse-Like Ground Motions. Melish Kayastha
Using Empirical Green's Functions (EGFs) for Strong Ground Motion Prediction: Recreating the 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake. Ryann Lam
Image De-Noising Using the Wavelet Transform Chidozie Opara

Fall 2019
Machine Learning and Signal Processing. Mohsen Akhani
Digital Signal Processing for Musical Application. Roshan Bhattarai
Continuous Wavelet Tranform of Seismic Signals. Roshan Koirala
Studying of remotely triggered earthquakes using signal processing methods. Anuradha Mahanama
Polynomial Regression and Calculation of R-squared Values of Topographic Profiles from LiDAR DEM of the Sikeston Bulge, New Madrid Seismic Zone. Samia Noor
Analyzing accelerometer data and discussing the strong ground motion in Kathmandu Valley: a case study of the 7.8 Mw Gorkha earthquake, Nepal. Kiran Pandey
A review on deconvolution methods used in Seismic signal processing. Kaushik Sarker

Fall 2018
Evaluation of Source Depth and S-R Distance Effect on Filtering to Identify Seismic Wave Arrivals. Ariful Islam
Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Role in Landslide Detection. Ben Gemballa
Use of Different Types of Filters for Image Processing and Enhancement. Thivanka Ratnayake

Fall 2017
A Review on Application of Signal Processing in Fall Detection of Elderly People. Hessam Madanipour.
OMP Algorithm to Solve Compress Sensing Problems in Signal Processing. Jiayan Tan.
Evaluate singing in song by applying STFT. Hee Choi.
Say No to Noise--A Signal Processing Approach to Remove Noise from Seismic Signal. Md Jabir Rahman.

Fall 2016
Artificial Neural Networks for Time Series Prediction. Elizabeth Gilmore.
Improving Automatic Phase Picking with th Kalman Filter. Peter Matheny.
Early Earthquake Warning using Metaheuristic methods. Hamed Abshari.
Polarization Analysis of Body Wave Phases. Oluwaseyi Bolarinwa.
Application of Wavelet Transform in Signal Processing. Ali Farhadi.
Effect of parameter selection in Butterworth and Chebyshev filters on the ground motion intensity measures and the structural response. Jalal Kiani.
Image Processing Using Points Operation. Hao Lu.
Signal Enhanced by Spectral Whitening. Yixin Zhang.

Fall 2015
Application of Signal Processing in Earthquake Engineering. Nima Nazemi.
Creating An F-K Filter to Analyze GPR Data. Trevor Satterfield.
Research on three-dimensional Goussev Filter and the Applications in Geophysical Data Processing. Yu Geng.
Comparison of the Empirical Green's Functions Calculated by Ambient Noise and the Frequency-wavenumber Method. Jia Zhang.
S-transform and its Applications in Seismic Data Analysis. Eric Jambo.
Applications of Laplace Transform Solutions in Groundwater Flow. Chloe Glover.
Transformations on Non-stationary Signals. Arushi Saxena.
Wavelet Transform and Its Applicatoin in Automatic P-phase picking. Aluwaseun Fadugba.

Fall 2014
Untitled. Khurram Aslam.
Enhancing an image with a high pass filtering approach. Arash Yarahmadi.
Effect of windowing on spectral leakage. Urbi Basu.
Applications of Signal Processing in the Structural Health Monitoring. Farhad Sedaghati.
The Wavelet Transform for Seismic Image Processing. Chunyu Li.
A Closer Look into the Design of IIR Filters. David Tovar.
Autocorrelation and its Applications. Shima Azizzadehroodpish.

Fall 2013
From Randon Polygon to Ellipse: A Fourier analysis View. Explanation of a phenomena in a paper by Elmachtoub and Van Loan from a Fourier perspective instead of an eigenanalysis. Yang Yang.
Signal Processing and post-processing methods in dynamic identification of bridges. Sepehr Movaghati.
Untitled. Alireza Haji Soltani.
Assessment of application of different filter with different parameters on Goodness of fit in synthetic seismogram with real data. Naeem Khoshnevis.
Fourier analysis of 2D heat diffusion equation, compare with numerical method. Md Sabber Ahamed.
Decoding the WWV IRIG-B Time Code Signal. Demian Gomez.
Baseline corrections by polynomial fitting for several recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake. Xiaochuan Tian.

Fall 2012
Determining Frequency Dependent Lg Q and Applying Butterworth Filtering. Mostafa Mousavi
Wiener Filter and Its Application. Monsurul Huda
Determination of Spectral Accelerations form Waveforms for the ENA East NGA flat-files. Luke Philip Ogweno
Applications of the Z-Transform. Matt Cooley
Application of Window method of FIR Filter in Noise-Signals. Mahesh Singh Dhar
Determination of Frequency Content and Filtration of ULF Emissions in Magnetotelluric signals During the 9.1Mw Tohoku-Oki Earthquake. Ryan Christianson

Fall 2011
FK Analysis of the NVT Array in Morring, TN. Blaine Bockholt
Applying the Laplace Transform to the Burridge-Knopoff Model of Seismicity to obtain the Transfer Function. Wes Foster
An Analysis of the z-Domain. Cecilia Nyamwandha
Hilbert Transform and Ring Lasers. John Meredith
Using a FIR filter on Seismograms. Sara Kelemencky
Processing Broadband Strong Motion Data with Matlab. Md Nayeem Al Noman
Wavelet Packe3t Transform vs. Fourier and wavelet transforms. Alireza Shahjouei

Spring 2010
Untitled. Mehrdad Hosseini
Filter Design and Application of Frequency ratio method in attenuation studies. Chigozie Obikili
Laplace Transform and Its Application in Seismology. Mahari Ayele
Determining the Location of Iron Mine by Using Magnetic Inverse Modeling Method. Mehmet Onur Mataracioglu
Untitled. Guo Lei

Spring 2009
Introduction to S-transform and its application. Shishay Bisrat
Slowness-Frequency (p-f) Image from Refraction Data, Utilizing Shift Theorem of Fourier Transform. Donny Dangkua
Synthetic Seismometer Calibration: The L28 Mark Product Geophone. Paul Ogwari
A Fun Foray into the Fundamentals of Frequency Filters: Featuring Matlab Facilitating in their Formulation. Michael Towle
Horizontal Orientation of Ocean Bottom Seismometers of the Nicoya Seismic Array. Melissa Driskell
A Brief Introduction to the Wavelet Transform. Steve Malone

Spring 2008
Rotation and Correlation of an Unkown Orientated Borehole Seismometer with a Known Orientated Surface Seismometer. Leah Mitchell
Introduction to Fourier Analysis. Solomon Ayele
An Introduction to Wavelet Analysis. Arash Zandieh

Spring 2007
Dispersion Curve Using Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) for Shelby Farms, Memphis, Tennessee. Ali Shahbazian
Random Processes. Jerry Kutliroff
On Waveform Cross-correlation of Array Data for Determining Source and Velocity Information. Buck Grant
Automatic Phase Picking for Local Earthquakes. Biniam Asmerom
Untitled. Greg Johnson
The Hilbert Transform. Jose Rodriguez

Spring 2006
Waveform Cross Correlation. Meredith Dunn
Signal Processing of Magnetotellurics (What Do the Black Boxes Do?). Leonard Jamerson
Dispersion Curves for the Garner Valley Test Site Experiment on the Demonstration of Nonlinearity. Yvonne Paisant
Instrument Resonse in Vault Compared to the Surface. Danya Pase
Using Power Spectral Density And Cross-Correlation to Determine the Source of a Mystery Signal. Allison Shumway
Single Degree of Freedom Ground Response Analysis. Scott Stovall

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